The country has been dubbed “the land of volcanoes.” El Salvador is the smallest Central American country (roughly the size of New Jersey). Yet, it has a developing reputation among specialty coffee-growing regions—every day, especially since the early 2000s.
The Cup of Excellence competition, which visited El Salvador in 2003, sparked a fresh “wave” of interest in Salvador’s coffee history, highlighting some of the country’s unique kinds for the first time.
The Beginning of the coffee tree in El Salvador, Salvador’s coffee history
El Salvador is departing the formerly major crop – indigo – after the advent of chemical dyes in the mid-nineteenth century, contributing to the rise of the coffee sector. Previously, the land was utilized for agriculture.
Indigo isn’t appropriate for making coffee. As a result, upper-class families used their political clout to establish legislation that evicted low-income people from their land and replaced it with new coffee plantations.
El Salvador was one of the most advanced Central American countries of the century, being the first to create paved roadways and invest in ports, railways, and public buildings. Luxury. Coffee has aided infrastructure development and the integration of indigenous groups into the national economy, but the elite has also used it to maintain economic dominance. And for the country’s politics.
El Salvador Coffee Production Faces political upheaval
Since the 1930s, the aristocracy had wielded power through the military regime’s support, which became a period of relative stability. However, the 1980s civil war significantly influenced this, as coffee Salvador’s coffee production dropped, and foreign markets shunned the country.
Salvador coffee exports amounted to 50% of GDP in the late 1970s. Still, socioeconomic and political turbulence forced the country into civil war for more than a decade, and many projects were separated throughout the 1980s. Land reclamation and agricultural reforms have split the coffee business, resulting in a market downturn. Lacking the resources to continue cultivating, growers abandoned their coffee fields, and many were left abandoned and unharvested for years until a peace accord was achieved. The 1990s.
Famous indigenous coffee varieties produced in El Salvador
Salvador coffee exports
Despite a drop in production and exports, the coffee sector reaped unanticipated gains from the civil war. Across Central America at the time, other Central American coffee farmers replaced their traditional coffee varietals with newly produced high-yielding varieties. These new kinds’ flavor quality isn’t as good as the old ones, but the yield is more important than quality.
El Salvador, on the other hand, did not choose this route. Because coffee production estates were abandoned in the 1980s (due to the civil war), the country still retains an exceptionally high proportion of Bourbon heirloom trees – roughly 68 percent of total coffee production. The well-drained but mineral-rich volcanic soil enhances the country’s potential for producing deliciously sweet Salvadoran coffee beans.
El Salvador is now capitalizing on its reputation by offering a wide range of tomato types, ranging from the old Typica and Bourbon varieties to the dwarf Pacas – a mutation from the Bourbon variety – or Pacamara, which has allowed farmers to commercialize tomato variants. Like exquisite single-varietal wines, individual coffees emphasize the genetics of the crop itself.
On one of Don Alberto Pacas’ farms in 1949, he identified a Bourbon variety mutation. Pacas was named for him, and the Pacamara variety was created by crossing it with Maragogype, a coffee with giant beans. Both types are still grown in the region and nearby nations – The Coffee Atlas of the World.
- To better understand coffee kinds, learn more about their origins and characteristics.
Unfortunately, one characteristic that has distinguished Salvador as a coffee-growing over the past two decades has also made the country vulnerable: Famous cultivars, such as those listed above, are frequently farmed as monocultures and are commonly cultivated as monocultures susceptible to coffee leaf rust.
The country’s crops have suffered a severe outbreak of coffee leaf rust, most recently in the 2010s, causing both quality and output to decline. Because Pacas or Pacamara have genes inherited from Bourbon, the country’s crops have suffered a severe outbreak of coffee leaf rust, causing both quality and output to decline.