Are you curious about Arabica coffee cultivation and the latest harvest reports? Do you want to learn about the ideal conditions for growing Arabica coffee, the best practices for harvesting, and the latest trends in the industry? Look no further, as we have compiled the ultimate guide for Arabica coffee cultivation and harvest reports.
Arabica coffee is the world’s most popular and widely grown coffee bean. It accounts for over 60% of the coffee produced worldwide. Arabica coffee is grown in Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, etc. The coffee plant requires specific conditions for optimal growth, such as high altitude, consistent temperatures, and adequate rainfall.
The Arabica Coffee Cultivation Process
The Arabica coffee cultivation process can be broken down into several steps: planting, growing, harvesting, processing, and roasting.
Arabica coffee is a plant consumers favor with its delicious and rich taste. This is a coffee plant with very high economic value. Compared to other types of coffee, this is a coffee variety whose growing technique is not too difficult but also not too easy.
So how to grow Arabica coffee with a high yield? Let’s learn how to increase standard Arabica coffee for high yield with Helena Coffee Vietnam!
Requirements for soil conditions:
Arabica coffee can be grown on many different lands where basalt soil is the most suitable type. When choosing soil for planting, you need to pay attention to ensure the following requirements:
- The land has a maximum slope of 80.
- The porosity of the soil should be at least 60%.
- The soil is easy to drain, not waterlogged.
- The soil layer is at least 70cm thick.
- The groundwater level is at least 100cm deep.
Arabica coffee is suitable for growing where the temperature is from 15 – 240ºC, and the rainfall is from 1200 – 1900mm. At the same time, the wind is not too strong, and the light is just enough.
Techniques for growing Arabica coffee
Choosing the suitable coffee variety
When choosing Arabica coffee varieties, you need to find a quality variety that ensures the following factors:
- Seedlings have a clear origin, not those sold floating in the market.
- The tree is sturdy, can develop and grow well.
- No pests.
- Good resistance to weather conditions and pests.
Arabica coffee plants are typically grown from seeds. The seeds are planted in soil enriched with nutrients, and the plants are grown in a nursery until they are about six months old. At this point, the plants are transplanted to their permanent location on the farm.
Prepare the land for planting.
Before proceeding to grow Arabica coffee, you need to plow the soil thoroughly and clear all the plant residues on the soil.
Arabica coffee will be grown with a size of about 40cm x 40cm x 50cm. Then, apply primer at least 2 months before planting.
Mix organic fertilizer and phosphorus with topsoil, then fill the hole with tissue about 10-15cm above the ground and compact the soil.
If you grow Arabica coffee in a large area, design it in pieces of about 10-15 hectares. In case if the land area is narrow, you should proceed to divide the lot according to the dividing line of the terrain. Design the coffee row along the contour line if growing on sloping land.
Planting Arabica coffee
First, you need to dig a small hole in the middle of the hole, then cut the plastic pot and gently place the seedling in the middle to ensure the tree is upright. Finally, you fill in the soil; the potting surface is 10-15cm from the ground.
Taking care of Arabica coffee plants
After planting the seedling, proceed to water the plant immediately to keep the plant moist. During the plant’s growth, you also need to water the plant regularly in the early morning and evening.
· Make a tub
To limit soil erosion and washout, make a basin around the root before you buy it for 1-2 months. When planting in the first year, dig the tub in a square of 1m with a depth of 0.15 – 0.2m. In the following years, you should dig wider from 1 – 1.5m with a depth of 0.15 – 0.2m.
· Original cabinet
After making the tub, use a dry straw to store around the base of the tree with a thickness of about 10-20cm. Please note that the cabinet is 5-10cm away from the root so that termites do not harm the Arabica coffee tree.
· Planting miles
After planting, you should observe the seedling; replant it immediately if you find the tree dead or not growing. The planting of miles needs to be finished before the end of the rainy season for up to 2 months.
Intercropping of legumes
In the first 3 years, you should intercrop legumes between the two coffee rows to increase your family’s income. At the same time, this also helps to improve the soil, providing more organic nutrients for coffee to grow well.
For coffee to grow well, you need to weed regularly so that the grass does not compete with all the nutrients of the Arabica coffee plant. You should weed periodically, about 3-4 times/year. In addition, you also conduct plowing of the soil to create ventilation, helping plants grow better.
You should proceed to shape the tree; it is best to leave only 1 trunk; choose the overshoots that grow from the trunk to create a new stem. At the same time, you should cut off all other excess shoots regularly.
On level 1 branches, create more secondary branches so that the branches can bear fruit. Only healthy branches should be selected as secondary branches. In addition, you need to cut off weak branches, pests, branches that grow close to the ground, and toothpicks.
Arabica coffee plants require specific growing conditions to thrive. They prefer high altitudes, well-draining soil, and a temperate climate with moderate rainfall. Farmers must monitor the plants carefully to ensure they get the proper water and nutrients.
Harvesting Arabica coffee beans is a labor-intensive process. When ripe, the beans are picked by hand, which can take several months. This requires a skilled workforce that can work quickly and efficiently to pick the beans before they become overripe.
- You can read more detail about Arabica Coffee Cultivation here.
After picking the beans, they must be processed to remove the outer layers and reveal the coffee bean inside. There are two main methods for processing Arabica coffee beans: the wet method and the dry method.
The wet method involves removing the outer layers of the coffee cherry using water. The beans are then fermented to remove any remaining fruit, washed, and dried.
The dry method involves leaving the coffee cherries out in the sun to dry. Once the cherries have dried, they are hulled to remove the outer layers.
Once the coffee beans have been processed, they are roasted to bring out their unique flavors and aromas. Roasting can be done in several ways, including air, drum, and fluid bed roasting. Each method produces a slightly different flavor profile.
Arabica Coffee Harvest Reports
Arabica coffee harvest reports provide insights into the latest trends in the industry, including the current production levels, prices, and quality of coffee beans. Here are some of the recent Arabica coffee harvest reports:
- According to the International Coffee Organization (ICO), global Arabica coffee production is estimated to increase by 1.6% to 96.8 million bags in 2021.
- Brazil, the largest producer of Arabica coffee, is expected to produce 47.5 million bags in 2021, a 31% increase from the previous year.
- Colombia, the second-largest producer of Arabica coffee, is projected to produce 14.5 million bags in 2021, a 7% increase from the previous year.
- The Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) reports that the average price of Arabica coffee on the New York Stock Exchange has increased by 10% since the start of 2021.
Arabica coffee harvest reports provide valuable information on the production and quality of Arabica coffee beans around the world. These reports are typically released annually by various organizations, including coffee associations and government agencies.
The data collected in these reports include information on the volume of coffee produced, the quality of the beans, and the market conditions for Arabica coffee. This information is used by coffee growers, traders, and roasters to make informed decisions about buying and selling Arabica coffee beans.
One of the most significant factors affecting Arabica coffee harvests is weather conditions. Rainfall, temperature, and other climate-related factors can have a significant impact on the quality and quantity of coffee produced in a given region. For example, drought conditions can reduce the size of coffee cherries and lower the overall yield of coffee beans.
Another factor affecting Arabica coffee harvests is the presence of pests and diseases. Coffee plants are susceptible to a range of pests and diseases, including coffee berry borers, leaf rust, and coffee wilt disease. These pests and diseases can cause significant damage to coffee crops and reduce the overall yield and quality of the beans.
In addition to weather and pest-related factors, labor shortages and political instability can also impact Arabica coffee harvests. Labor shortages can make it difficult for coffee growers to find skilled workers to pick and process coffee beans. Political instability can lead to disruptions in the coffee supply chain, making it difficult for coffee growers to transport their beans to the market.
Despite these challenges, the global production of Arabica coffee remains robust. According to the International Coffee Organization, global coffee production reached a record high of 174.6 million bags in the 2020-2021 harvest season, with Arabica coffee accounting for around 60% of the total volume.
In terms of quality, Arabica coffee is known for its complex flavor profile and low acidity, making it a favorite among coffee enthusiasts. This high demand for Arabica coffee has led to the development of several programs aimed at promoting sustainable coffee production and ensuring fair prices for coffee growers.
Best Practices for Arabica Coffee Harvesting
The harvesting of Arabica coffee is a crucial process that affects the quality of the coffee beans. Here are some best practices for Arabica coffee harvesting:
- Selective Picking: Arabica coffee cherries do not ripen at the same time, so selective picking is necessary. Experienced coffee farmers will only pick ripe cherries, which ensures that the coffee beans are of high quality.
- Timing: The timing of the harvest is critical, as it affects the flavor profile of the coffee beans. Arabica coffee should be harvested when the cherries are at their peak ripeness, which is usually between June to September.
- Processing: The processing of Arabica coffee involves removing the outer layers of the coffee cherry to reveal the coffee beans.
- Wet Processing: This method involves removing the outer layers of the coffee cherry through washing and fermentation. The coffee beans are then dried to the desired moisture content.
- Dry Processing: In this method, the coffee cherries are dried in the sun, allowing the outer layers to naturally separate from the coffee beans. This method is commonly used in regions with low rainfall and high temperatures.
- Sorting: After processing, the coffee beans need to be sorted to remove any defects or foreign materials. This process ensures that only high-quality coffee beans are exported.
FAQs about Arabica Coffee Cultivation and Harvesting
- What is the difference between Arabica and Robusta coffee beans?
Arabica coffee beans are generally considered to have a more complex and nuanced flavor profile, while Robusta coffee beans have a stronger and more bitter taste. Arabica coffee is also more expensive than Robusta coffee.
- What is the ideal altitude for Arabica coffee cultivation?
Arabica coffee thrives in high-altitude regions between 1,200 to 2,200 meters above sea level. The high altitude provides a cooler temperature, which slows down the growth of the coffee plant, leading to more complex flavors.
- How much rainfall does Arabica coffee require?
Arabica coffee requires consistent rainfall throughout the year. The coffee plant needs a minimum of 1,500mm of rainfall annually.
- When is the best time to harvest Arabica coffee?
Arabica coffee should be harvested when the cherries are at their peak ripeness, which is usually between June to September.
- How are Arabica coffee beans processed?
There are two main methods of processing Arabica coffee: wet processing and dry processing. Wet processing involves removing the outer layers of the coffee cherry through washing and fermentation, while dry processing involves drying the coffee cherries in the sun.
- Why is sorting important in Arabica coffee harvesting?
Sorting is crucial in Arabica coffee harvesting to remove any defects or foreign materials. This process ensures that only high-quality coffee beans are exported.
In conclusion, Arabica coffee cultivation and harvesting require specific conditions and practices for optimal growth and quality coffee beans. The latest Arabica coffee harvest reports indicate a positive outlook for the industry, with increasing production levels and prices. By following best practices for Arabica coffee harvesting, farmers can ensure the production of high-quality coffee beans.