Hybrido de Timor is another name for the Timor coffee variety, a hybrid between Robusta coffee and Arabica coffee. Hybrido de Timor was first discovered in the 1940s on the island of Timor in Indonesia with strong rust resistance inherited from Robusta coffee varieties.
Hybrido de Timor was discovered in 1927 in a Typica coffee plantation established in 1917, in present-day East Timor. Coffee farmers in Timor started growing Hibrido de Timor in the 1940s. In the late 50s and 60s, Timor Hybrid seeds spread to other Indonesian islands and then to research institutes around the world. , where breeders have crossed them with other Arabica coffee plants.
Scientifically, Timor Hybrid carries in itself the gene expression of the Arabica variety with a tetraploid chromosome set (instead of diploid like on Robusta plants). At least five disease-resistance genes inherited from Robusta exist in the Timor Hybrid (SH5 to SH9). With this genome, Timor Hybrid “bridges” help breed Arabica plants containing other disease-resistance genes.