When judging the quality and taste of a cup of coffee is good or bad, Many people often immediately mention skills. Extraction method and skill will determine the coffee’s flavor. This is true but not enough. There are five factors affecting the taste of coffee that anyone who “falls in love” with this drink should know; to have the most beautiful and complete feeling and experience that coffee brings.
1. Genes – the factor that affects the taste of coffee; few people know about it
The prerequisite of the five factors affecting the taste of coffee is the genome. You may or may not know that there are up to 125 different types of coffee in the world according to each region, climate, country, and soil. Which, Robusta and Arabica coffee are famous and have the highest output.
Each of these coffees has generations of F1, F2, and even thousands of different genetic varieties and has flavor characteristics determined by its genome. The difference in flavor according to each genome will bring attractiveness and appeal to each customer’s tastes and preferences, thereby helping them have remarkable and diverse experiences in food—Taste of coffee.
2. Cultivation and growth conditions
To have good coffee, quality and taste balance between sour, sweet, and bitter; The aroma also depends on the cultivation technique, soil, and altitude… These factors determine 70% of the product’s quality.
If cultivated on higher land, coffee has a longer growth cycle; accumulating nutrients in seeds takes place more slowly; The result is a richer, more varied flavor with lower caffeine content. That’s why the mountains and highlands are the ideal areas for growing coffee; instead of the plains or midlands.
Besides, altitude is a necessary condition; Equally essential factors are soil quality, rainfall, climate… For example, with Arabica coffee, the suitable air temperature is from 18 to 23 degrees Celsius. If it is above this temperature, it will promote the development of coffee. Develop and ripen quickly, resulting in poor quality. If the coffee tree is constantly subjected to the high heat of 30 degrees Celsius, it can reduce growth and yellow leaves.
Robusta coffee is suitable for growing where the temperature is from 23-26 degrees Celsius, with abundant rainfall up to 2,000mm distributed in 9 to 10 months. With this unique adaptation, the same coffee variety grown in different regions will give various coffee quality and flavors. Like Arabica, coffee grown in Vietnam will have a different taste than that produced in Ethiopia.
3. The process of processing green coffee
This is also an indispensable step that determines the taste of coffee. There are three most popular processing methods for green coffee in the world. They are natural, wet, and honey.
Natural processing is drying in the sun and then peeling. Wet processing means that the harvested coffee cherries are freshly peeled, fermented, dry, separated from the silk skin, and collected kernels. The honey processing is crushed fresh coffee berries; Removed d from the outer skin, then dried and separated from the silk.
Natural processing helps to keep the pure coffee flavor with interesting flavor characteristics; more clearly, typically, the group of flavors of tropical fruit, mint, herbal…
The wet processing method creates a distinctive, premium flavor thanks to the fermentation process. This method is more expensive because of the equipment used; machinery should usually only apply to specialty Arabica coffee lines, which Helps preserve the maximum flavor in the seeds.
The honey processing method helps the coffee keep the body; Sweet taste with some acidity. Therefore, coffee processed by this method usually has a whole body; a Long sweet aftertaste with a balanced sour taste.
4. Roasting process (flavor)
Do not think that the roasting process has been “taken care of” by machines! You need to adjust the temperature and time according to the manufacturer’s regulations. Coffee roasting time and temperature significantly affect the taste of coffee. A slight deviation in time also makes the coffee taste “off-standard”; There is no balance in flavor.
There will be different roasting times for each type of coffee according to different levels.
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Cinnamon Roast level
This is the level with a short roasting time so that the coffee will have a more sour, slightly bitter taste; the aroma of coffee will not be noticeable.
Medium Roast level
This level has a medium roasting time; roasted coffee will have a balanced sour, bitter and acrid taste. The aroma of coffee beans will be distinguished.
Dark Roast level
Coffee is roasted for a long time, so it has a heavy body and high bitterness, reducing its acrid and sour taste. However, because the roasting time is too long, the aromas are lost, leading to a more burnt smell than the original smell.
Besides, the preservation and packaging of coffee after roasting/grinding also affects the taste; coffee freshness. If the coffee, after grinding, is placed in locations with direct sunlight or has a too hot temperature will make the coffee very smelly. It should be stored in a cool, dry place to avoid moisture. Packaging also needs to be careful. Close the packaging; it can be vacuumed to prevent oxidation. After opening the packaging, it is also necessary to close it carefully, do not let the wind blow away the scent of the coffee.
5. Mixing technique (water, roast)
Of the five factors that affect the taste of coffee, the preparation technique is the last step. This is also the stage that determines the success or failure of a cup of coffee before serving customers. Is a cup of coffee delicious, quality, rich, and balanced in flavor, or a cup of coffee that is too bitter or too light, too sweet… it all depends on skill.
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