Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

Vietnamese Coffee Exporter
Coffee Roasting - The Roasting Notes

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes: Roasting coffee is not difficult, but roasting coffee well takes more skill than you would think.

The great thing about mastering the roasting method is that you can produce genuinely passionate and admirable batches of coffee, whether you are an amateur barista with a high-end coffee machine or a modest home coffee machine.

Please keep reading and learning more about coffee roasting: The roasting notes from our extensive article!

The Roasting Notes: Why do we roast coffee?

Coffee is a beverage produced from coffee bean powder. After being picked, the ripe red coffee berries are dried and peeled, leaving only the kernel as the seed. Coffee beans will be roasted before being processed into a powder for processing. What is the purpose of roasting coffee? Many people have these concerns.

Unlike other grains such as beans, rice, cashews, and so on, coffee beans are only ground into powder and used to prepare drinks. Coffee beans are distinguished by their scent and bitter flavor. However, unless the aftertaste is roasted, it will remain hidden.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

Coffee roasting is a method of altering the chemical properties of coffee beans by heating them. At 240 – 250 degrees Celsius, coffee beans will continually evaporate water, contract, then expand to reach their maximum volume threshold.

When coffee beans are roasted, they emit a distinct aroma, and the seeds become crisp, spongy, and easy to grind. The purpose of roasting coffee beans is to release concealed aftertastes such as scent, bitterness, sour flavor, and fatty taste while making the beans spongy and soft to make grinding into powder easier.

The art of coffee roasting

When roasting grains like green beans, peanuts, rice, and so on, a color shift indicates whether they are cooked. However, when it comes to coffee beans, you won’t be able to utilize color change to determine if they are ripe; instead, you’ll use it to determine whether the quality has reached its peak.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

The beans will change color throughout the roasting process and eventually achieve a rich brown tint. Only expert coffee roasters can interpret the color shift in coffee beans. The color of the coffee beans can change in seconds. The color of coffee beans can be used to determine their quality.

  • Light brown coffee: No grease is on the surface due to the low caffeine concentration.
  • Medium brown coffee: Flavorful, with a faint bitter aftertaste and some oil on the surface.
  • Dark brown coffee: It has a strong flavor, distinct scent, low acidity, and a gleaming surface. If the coffee is still roasting when it turns dark brown, it will turn into charcoal.

You can learn more about the roasting levels of coffee in this article. (Roasting Coffee Best Practices)

The roasting notes: How do you roast coffee properly?

Many specialists spent years learning to “read” the level of roasting of coffee beans. The difference between perfectly roasted coffee and a bad batch can be a matter of time measured in seconds.

As a result, numerous things must be considered while roasting a batch of high-quality coffee. Essential aspects to consider are the quality and properties of the coffee beans you select, the roasting process or technique, time, and temperature.

Quality of green coffee beans

The quality of the input ingredients is just as crucial in making a nice cup of coffee as it is in preparing a tasty dish. As a result, coffee beans must be harvested fully ripe and processed according to industry standards.

Because selecting raw materials is crucial, you should only buy coffee from reliable and reputable providers. Robusta and Arabica are the two varieties of coffee available today. Even the best coffee machines cannot duplicate or “fake” the qualities and flavors of these two varieties of coffee.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

Robusta coffee, which currently accounts for a quarter of all coffee drank worldwide, has a more bitter flavor and is considered “bold” by many drinkers. Meanwhile, Arabica coffee, which accounts for 23% of global coffee consumption, has a more appealing aroma and is more expensive.

Many consumers also laud Arabica for its “aftertaste” (sweet and impressive bitter taste after drinking). So, depending on your needs and preferences, you can pick the best option.

The roasting notes: Roasting technique 

The technique is the secret to making the ideal ingredients for circular coffee cups. If you’ve ever heard the phrase “the art of brewing,” roasting coffee is more than an art; it’s a science that requires extreme precision. It doesn’t matter how much a coffee roaster costs, whether expensive or affordable.

What matters is how well you understand the roasting procedure. Fortunately, with the advancement of technology and information, even if you have no prior knowledge of coffee or roasting, you may consult and learn from various online sources.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

You can also read the articles we’ve accumulated and put them in the Coffee news section about roasting and picking coffee beans. When it comes to roasting coffee beans, there are three primary processes to consider. These stages will determine coffee’s acidity, flavor, strength, and aftertaste.

Stage 1: Endothermic

The coffee beans are still green at the start of the roasting process. You should roast the seeds until they are dry, golden, or golden brown. Due to the water in the coffee beans leaving, the aroma of damp grass will be released at that time.

Soon after, you’ll detect a scent reminiscent of roasted corn and toast, signaling that the coffee roasting process has progressed to the next stage.

Stage 2: The first crack

The structure of the coffee beans will change at this time. The volume of the beans will be nearly twice as large as before, the weight of the beans will drop, and the coffee will begin to burst. Coffee beans turn light brown to medium brown with time. The second phase likewise concludes here.

Stage 3: The second crack

The sugar in the coffee beans converts to caramel at this point, forming an oil coating on the beans. Even if coffee roasting equipment supports all three phases, you must be cautious since it cannot be guaranteed, no matter how expensive your coffee roaster is.

The coffee will be roasted to perfection. Even with the best coffee makers, you won’t be able to drink a full cup of espresso or cappuccino if the coffee isn’t adequately roasted.

The roasting notes: Roasting time

The coffee beans will produce a characteristic flavor of the region where they are grown when lightly roasted, which can be tasted in the coffee cup along with the motherland’s traditional aroma.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

Or the scent of the climate in which the coffee plant thrives. In other words, these characteristics significantly impact coffee flavor and give it distinct “personalities.” So, what is the typical roasting time?

Estimating how long a batch of coffee takes to roast is tough. Coffee roasting time varies depending on the amount of coffee in the oven and the strength of the fire. Furthermore, the time it takes to roast each batch of coffee is determined by the roasting equipment utilized.

Modern coffee roasters can complete a roasting batch in 18-25 minutes, with an average temperature of 180-240 degrees Celsius. For example, roasting a batch of coffee for espresso will take less time than roasting a set for a filter, and roasting for a drip will take less time.

The roasting notes: Temperature of roasting

The temperature has a significant influence on the roasting process.

  • Low temperature: The coffee beans will be light and golden brown if the roasting temperature is low. Besides, the seeds will be dry and have low density and low acidity.
  • Medium temperature: At this point, the coffee beans are light brown, the size of the beans increases, and the acidity increases, but the beans are still dry.
  • High temperature: Beautiful coffee beans. The acidity is no longer there. Coffee will have a strong and rich aroma.
  • Very high temperature:  The coffee beans will be dark brown, the aroma will be reduced, and the aftertaste will also be reduced.

Many types of coffee, such as the famed Moka coffee beans from Cau Dat, Jamaica, are typically roasted not too dark to retain their characteristic flavor, etc.

Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes
Coffee Roasting: The Roasting Notes

Coffee beans are generally dark-burned for individuals who prefer a strong flavor. Since then, the sensation of coffee’s “quality” has become more apparent and darker. However, if coffee beans are burned during the roasting process, they will lose their flavor and quality.


Finally, don’t worry if you are a novice trying to roast the first batch of coffee yourself. Anyone who wants to succeed in something must constantly study and practice. Sure, your first batch of roasted coffee won’t be as good as those from expert roasters, but don’t give up.

We hope that the information presented above will give you the knowledge and confidence to roast your first batch of coffee effectively. See you in the following coffee articles on our website –             

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