Coffee And Health: Cancer. Generally speaking, cancer is the ultimate result of abnormal cell formation that may harm any human tissue in its most general definition.
However, current epidemiological data reveals that coffee intake may actually be associated with a decreased overall cancer risk, especially in the case of liver and colorectal cancers, rather than the other way around (for liver cancer see sidebar on liver health).
According to previous research, the highest level of coffee consumption (more than four cups per day) has been associated with a slightly increased risk of bladder cancer (Villanueva et al., 2009; Nkondjock, 2012). Other studies, including those that were controlled for smoking (Butt and Sultan, 2011), failed to find an increased incidence of bladder cancer among smokers.
Coffee includes a variety of compounds that have been shown to have anti-cancer capabilities. One of these molecules is chlorogenic acid. The chlorogenic acids and their derivatives are among the most well-known of the plant’s compounds.
The results of in vitro and animal research, as well as certain human investigations, have led to the designation of these substances as “potent antioxidant chemicals.” While most studies have failed to establish substantial antioxidative activity in human plasma after coffee intake (Stalmach et al., 2009), this might simply be due to analytical constraints 508 (as is the case with other polyphenols).
Coffee’s Art and Science, as well as fast tissue absorption, are all important considerations. Furthermore, these compounds have been found to function as chemopreventive agents by modifying the expression of gene-encoding enzymes that are engaged in natural antioxidant defense mechanisms (Feng et al., 2005; Ramos, 2008).
Aside from their anticarcinogenic properties, chlorogenic acids may also act as anti-aging agents by inhibiting enzymes involved in DNA replication, cell differentiation, and cell maturation, among other things (Jurkowska et al., 2011).
The presence of chlorogenic acids in the colon may aid in the prevention of colon cancer by neutralizing free radicals. They may possibly have the ability to halt the growth of cancer, however the processes are still being researched (Ludwig et al., 2014). Un the body, coffee melanoidins serve as dietary fiber because they are mostly indigestible and, as a result, ferment in the stomach (Borrelli et al., 2004; Gniechwitz et al., 2008).
They have immune-stimulating properties and, like chlorogenic acids, may assist to minimize the occurrence of colon cancer in the population (Passos et al., 2014). (Vitaglione et al., 2012; Moreira et al., 2015; Fogliano and Morales, 2011; Vitaglione and colleagues, 2012).
There are three ways in which melanoidins may help to prevent colon cancer: (1) by increasing the rate of carcinogen elimination through increased colon motility and fecal output; (2) by decreasing colon inflammation through improved microbiota balance (prebiotic effect); and (3) by acting as a free radical “sponge” (Garsetti et al., 2000).
However, despite all of these benefits, some individuals feel coffee is hazardous because it contains carcinogenic compounds such as acrylamide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are thought to cause cancer. On the other hand, studies conducted on the general population have revealed no evidence of a relationship between any of these compounds in coffee and an increased chance of developing cancer (Lipworth et al., 2012; Nkondjock, 2012). Research mice subjected to severe temperatures (1000e10,000 times the body’s normal temperature) were found to develop cancer.
Acrylamide, a molecule contained in roasted coffee, has been related to cancer in laboratory mice (Mucci and Adami, 2009). However, despite the fact that the United States Food and Drug Administration (2016) stated that coffee is a significant source of acrylamide exposure for adults, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recently stated that “there is no consistent indication of an association between acrylamide exposure and increased risk” for the majority of cancers (EFSA 4104, 2015b).
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classed acrylamides as a “possible carcinogen,” which means they may cause cancer (www.iarc.fr).
Excessive roasting or exposure to very high temperatures in the preparation of coffee and other foods may result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified this chemical as “human carcinogenic,” which means it is harmful to humans (Loomis et al., 2016).
While coffee does contain PAHs, it is a very low-level cause of PAH exposure. In May 2016, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) revised the classification of “overall coffee” from “probably carcinogenic” to “unclassifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.” This is a big development. As a result of the increasing quantity of scientific information, which includes over 1000 human and animal investigations, the categorization system has been modified (Loomis et al., 2016).
Human Wellbeing, Performance, and Health (Chapter j 20 509: Human Wellbeing, Performance, and Health) The use of hot liquids such as tea or coffee has been associated to a greater risk of esophageal cancer in many epidemiological studies. The high temperature damages the mucosa of the esophagus, resulting in inflammation or the creation of reactive nitrogen species, which are a sort of free radical.
It has been discovered that drinking coffee at 65 degrees Fahrenheit increased the intraesophageal temperature by 6e12 degrees Fahrenheit after consumption (Islami et al., 2009).
The anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects of coffee’s constituents may reduce the incidence of esophageal cancer. In order to assess the influence of different routes and the degree to which drinking hot coffee is a risk factor, additional study is required.