Coffee is the spiritual cure for humanity. Sour, sweet, aromatic, and a million other flavours, including the spice of emotions, are contained in the brown wood “sweet candies”.
Strangely, a particle consciousness has some variation in its natural texture, creating a different presentation when it collides with the human senses. And more strangely, coffee, with the desire to always capture the hearts of humanity, transforms and exists in many different shapes and flavours. So that everyone who tries it wants to taste more, whoever learns has to study thousands of pages of paper again.
Varieties and classification
The coffee plant belongs to the family Rubiaceae, part of the dicotyledonous group – a class of flowering plants whose seeds typically contain two embryonic or dicotyledonous leaves. Coffee flowers have an aroma and flavour similar to anise, and only three types are widely produced for commercial purposes.
Linné Arabica coffee is divided into several varieties, some tall (Bourbon, Typica,…) and some dwarf (Caturra, Catuai,…) This is a tetraploid (4n=44) with superior flavour. Great low caffeine content and distinctive aroma. This plant is often susceptible to diseases such as leaf rust, especially in Bourbon varieties. Among the more than 200 varieties of Arabica available, some of the most popular types include:
– Typical: Grown mainly in Brazil; most of the existing varieties are derived from this variety;
– Bourbon: Has 25% higher yield than Typica;
– Mocha: Originated from Ethiopia;
– Mundo Novo: This is a cross between Bourbon and another variety from Sumatra;
– SL28 and Ruiru 11 from Kenya;
– Pache Comun and Pache Colis: Both are mutants from Typica;
– Maragogype: A mutant from Typica, characterized by relatively large grain size, native to Brazil;
– Kent, S288 and S795: All of these are of Indian origin;
– Blue Mountain: Famous variety from Jamaica;
The most crucial dwarf varieties are:
– Caturra: A mutant from Bourbon, known for its yield and good taste; native to Brazil;
– Catuai: A hybrid between Caturra and Mundo Novo;
– Catimor: Hybrid between Caturra and Hybrido de Timor.
Canephora Pierre Coffee – This species is divided into several varieties, but two are mainly grown for commercial purposes: Robusta and Conlon (primarily produced in Brazil). Overall, this is a diploid species (2n = 22) with worse flavour but higher yield; resistant to rust (Hemileia differatrix), root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne exigua, M. incognita, M. paraenesis, Pratylenchus brachyurous and P. Coffee) and coffee bean disease (Colletotrichum kahawai). Important varieties:
– Robusta: The most popular variety;
– Conlon: Grown mainly in Brazil;
– Kouilou or Kwilu: Has smaller seeds and fruits than Robusta.
There are many hybrids between C.Arabica and C.Canephora; Natural hybrids like the Hybrido de Timor and artificial hybrids like the Arabusta were created in Ivory Coast.
Liberica Hiern Coffee – This is a diploid species (2n = 22) that includes var.Liberia, var. dewevrei and var. excelsa. This species is known for its relatively unpleasant coffee flavour and earthy aroma. Despite its good rust resistance, this species declines and is less commonly cultivated due to reduced demand.
Table 1 displays some specific characteristics and quality parameters of coffee species.
The correct selection of the suitable coffee variety, adapted to the growing region’s conditions, is essential to the final taste and quality of the cup. The main Arabica coffee varieties in some of the major producing countries include:
With the Canephora varieties, the difference in flavour quality is not as evident as in C.Arabica, although this gradually changes in the wet primary Robusta varieties. Some types native to Angola or Congo-Kinshasa, such as “Kouilou or Conilon” (Kwilu), have been known for better quality. Vietnam, Indonesia and Uganda are currently known as the world’s leading coffee supply countries. For simplicity, today, people use Arabica (for C.Arabica) and Robusta (for C.Canephora).
Conditions of culturing
Jorge Raul Rivera, a Finca Santa Rosa producer in San Ignacio, El Salvador, said farmers often choose to cultivate the rare Pacamara coffee because of its high price and quality, despite its low yield. and coffee trees are also very vulnerable.
The choice of coffee variety often depends on how it is cultivated and the market for which the product is distributed.
The land where coffee is grown is a key and essential factor in deciding which coffee varieties to cultivate. A combination with a high yield and meets the market’s needs, but is not suitable for the climate and soil in the cultivation site, is difficult to choose for planting.
If you choose a plant that needs a dry, relatively relaxed environment but grows it in a warm and humid area, the results are unpredictable.
The variables that growers need to consider are genetic quality, where the seed comes from, and the soil’s characteristics where it will grow, says Diego Cobo, manager of Elixir Cafe in Cauca, Colombia. In the farming area where he lives, Castillo is a popular coffee variety suitable for the local soil and can be resistant to coffee rust.
It is necessary to study seriously and specifically the climate of coffee trees, including rainfall, humidity and temperature. Farmers can also use field mapping techniques such as soil analysis to assess which varieties will thrive in a particular soil area and the fertilizer needed for maximum effectiveness. This analysis can reveal helpful information for implementing intercropping or optimizing land use.
Today, climate change has a significant impact on farming and caring for crops. Therefore, the understanding and sensitivity in research and selection of plant varieties and development of new types are also focused on investment.
Us products consumer market
It is also essential to consider consumer demand and producer access to the market when selecting coffee varieties. If you invest in Specialty coffee but don’t have the relationship to sell it at the right price, the farmer could lose money. Similarly, if there is no demand for the seed being planted or excess demand, farmers may be forced to sell their coffee at below-market prices.
Carlos shared that one factor to consider when choosing coffee varieties in the market is the taste of the coffee and who will buy it.
So it’s always a good idea for a farmer to do some serious research on local sales opportunities and consider joining an association or cooperative that can help you make new business relationships. As the right group of manufacturers, you can access valuable resources, take advantage of marketing and sales opportunities, and learn from other members’ experiences.