Process Of Roasting Coffee

Vietnamese Coffee Exporter

Process Of Roasting Coffee? Coffee Roasting Process 

Process Of Roasting Coffee? Coffee roasting is a heat-based procedure that transforms green coffee beans roasted into the brown or black coffee beans start we’re familiar with. Green coffee beans are acidic, protein-rich, and caffeine-rich, but they lack flavor. The roasting process causes the green coffee beans to lose steam, expand, and change color and taste by promoting chemical reactions in the beans, particularly those involving sugars and amino acids. This produces an aroma and causes the green coffee beans to lose steam, expand, and change color and taste. odor. Because of dehydration, coffee beans after roasting have a 40 percent bigger volume than before roasting but are 10-15 percent lighter.

Because it is difficult to preserve roasted coffee for lengthy periods of time, the majority of coffee is roasted near the marketplaces where it is consumed. This reduces the amount of time it takes to deliver coffee to customers, resulting in longer shelf life. People usually buy pre-roasted coffee at the store, but many people roast their own coffee at home, partly because they enjoy it, and partly because they want a truly fresh cup of coffee.
The roasting process includes numerous steps, including heating the coffee beans to evaporate the water, the first stage of coffee bursting, the second stage of coffee bursting, and the chilling stage… Coffee roasters devote a significant amount of time to their work. Distinct degrees of roasting have different names, such as City Roast and French Roast. The temperature at which the coffee beans are roasted is represented by this number.

What is the significance of roasting – or is it?

Coffee beans are developed seeds from coffee cherries. After that, they’re processed and dried to become coffee beans. Coffee beans are green in color and have a beany, grassy scent before being roasted. Green coffee beans, on the other hand, do not smell like coffee at all. We produce 800 to 1000 different fragrance molecules when we roast coffee. The coffee’s flavor is created by these components. We can influence the presence of these aroma components in coffee and also identify the flavor of the coffee using roast profiling.

The roasting of coffee

Roasting refers to the process of turning green coffee beans into brown ones. It can be made in a variety of methods, which influences the flavor. I’ll go over the fundamentals of roasting and industrial roasting here. Tomi’s blog discusses the many methods for roasting coffee at home.
Stages of roasting
The drying, browning, and development (or roasting) stages are the three basic steps of roasting.
The coffee bean has an average humidity of 8–12%. Before we begin roasting, we must first dry it. With a classic drum roaster, the drying stage usually lasts 4–8 minutes (see below for roaster designs). The temperature at the end of the drying step is usually around 160 degrees Celsius. You must be careful, especially with drum roasters, to avoid burning the beans by using too much heat at the start. Because the final act of roasting is exothermic, the drying stage is also vital for gathering energy for the bean (heat producing).
The coffee begins to smell like toasted bread and hay after it reaches 160°C. This is the point at which the fragrance precursors begin to transform into scent molecules. Despite the fact that the browning step occurs after the drying stage, the drying process continues during the browning stage.
The Maillard process, which causes browning, begins during the browning stage. Reducing sugars and amino acids combine in the Maillard reaction to produce hundreds of distinct flavor and color chemicals known as melanoids. This is the point at which the roast naturally slows down – and some roastmasters prefer it to do so – to allow for flavor development. The coffee begins to pop at the end of the browning step. This is known as the first crack, and it is at this point that the development stage begins.
The reaction becomes exothermic at the start of the growth stage, and the coffee cracks. The bean has accumulated energy during the drying and browning steps, which causes the coffee to erupt. When the desired scent compounds are developing, it is called development period. We can easily get coffee that tastes smokey and has a strong flavor if we do not slow down the roast during the development stage.
Depending on the intended flavor profile and roast degree, the development stage might last anywhere from 15 to 25% of the entire roast time.
degree of roasting
The roasting degree is one of the most essential indicators. A color meter or a taste test can be used to determine it. Roasters usually strive to bring out the natural flavors of coffee and determine the degree of roasting. Lightly roasted coffees are typically more acidic, whereas darkly roasted coffees are bitter. Light roasts are also more likely to have fruity flavors, whilst dark roasts are more likely to have roasty and burnt flavors. Due to high levels of an organic component called 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, light roasted coffee has a more fruity flavor. As the roasting progresses, this molecule degrades into less fruity chemicals. The number of sulfuric chemicals in the food increases, resulting in roasted and burnt flavors. We can infer that light roasted coffee brings out the character of the raw coffee better as a rule of thumb. Dark roasted coffee is more difficult to distinguish from light roasted coffee.
Roast time While the roast degree has the greatest impact on the flavor profile of coffee, the overall roast duration and the time spent at each step are also essential considerations. If you roast quickly, you’ll get more of the fragrance components you want. But take cautious not to overcook the beans! The overall flavor of coffee (fruity, berry-like, chocolaty, and nutty) is stronger. Fast roasting also increases the number of fragrance components formed at the start of the growth stage.
Fast roasting isn’t always the best option. It could be related to the roaster’s design (see next paragraph) or the properties of the coffee. Fast roasting brings out all of the coffee’s flavors. We must change the roast profile if we do not want some flavors in the coffee. Acidity, for example, is typically a preferred flavor, but in espresso mixes, minimal acidity is occasionally requested. Slower roasting allows organic acids to break down more slowly, making the coffee less acidic. This is when slow roasting comes in handy.
Roaster layouts
Roasters come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The design has an impact on the thermodynamics of roasting, and different equipment can produce different flavors of coffee. Drum roasters are commonly used by small roasters, in which beans rotate in a drum heated underneath with either a direct or indirect flame. As a result, the energy volume of roasters is large. Although roasting using these devices is quite steady, the roastmaster must be able to think up to minutes ahead of time. When roasting slowly, drum roasters are recommended since a high temperature at the start of the roast might burn the bean from the outside.
Fluidized bed roasters have been around for a long time in the industry. The roaster in a fluidized bed roaster is heated indirectly by hot air. As a result, the roaster is easier to control. Fluidized bed roasters allow for faster roasting without burning the bean from the exterior, as well as greater scent in the coffee. Our roaster in the Vuosaari roastery is an example of a fluidized bed roaster. There are other hybrids of fluidized bed and drum roasters, such as Loring Roasters, which have a drum but heat through hot air indirectly.
Are you roasting for filter coffee or espresso?
Have you ever wondered what the distinction is between filter and espresso coffee? Filter extraction is done by gravity and is a very gentle procedure. For the filter, you might choose a more aromatic and acidic coffee. Espresso, on the other hand, is extracted at a pressure of 9 bar. More flavor is extracted into the cup as a result. Coffee roasted for espresso may not be as delicious as filter coffee when brewed, and vice versa. Some roastmasters choose to roast just for the bean, rather than for the extraction process, which implies aiming for a golden medium between too light and too dark so that coffee can be used for both.
Espresso is traditionally a dark roasted coffee with a high body and low acidity. Different countries roast filter coffee differently, although the roast level is often lighter than espresso. Roasting styles are more varied nowadays than they were in the past. For example, our Ethiopia Amaro Gayo espresso placed third in the espresso category at the Helsinki Coffee Festival. The espresso was light roasted with a quick profile, resulting in a highly aromatic product with a minimal level of roastiness. The body was juicier than hefty. On the other hand, we’d like certain of our espresso coffees to be more full-bodied. Then, to develop flavor and reduce acidity, we roast for a little longer and extend the development stage.
Overall, mastering the art of roasting is a never-ending quest. It’s never too late to learn more about the bean. The most fascinating aspect of my job is determining the appropriate roast profile for the coffee’s qualities. I hope you found the information useful and that it aided you on your coffee adventure!



  • 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit) Beans, green Green coffee beans, as they were when exported. Green coffee beans can maintain their quality for up to two years.
  • 165 degrees Celsius (329 degrees Fahrenheit) Phase of Drying

The coffee beans absorb heat throughout this process, forcing the water to evaporate until the beans explode for the first time.

  • 385 °F + 196 °C Roasted cinnamon

The coffee will have a light brown color, comparable to cinnamon, and a mild herbal aroma as soon as the coffee beans explode for the first time.

  • 205 degrees Celsius (401 degrees Fahrenheit) Roasted New England Pork The aroma becomes sweeter as it becomes slightly darker brown. This is a roasting method that brings out the numerous rich tastes in coffee beans.
  • 205 degrees Celsius (401 degrees Fahrenheit) Roasted New England Pork The aroma becomes sweeter as it becomes slightly darker brown. This is a roasting method that brings out the numerous rich tastes in coffee beans.
  • 426 °F + 219 °C City Roast The coffee beans are dark brown at the end of the first explosion. For specialty coffees, this is a common roast.
  • 225 degrees Celsius (437 degrees Fahrenheit) Roasted in the City

The coffee beans will turn brown and become oily when the temperature reaches 225°C, making them glossy. Begin the second explosion now.

  • 230 degrees Celsius (446 degrees Fahrenheit) Roasted in Vienna

The coffee beans are dark brown with an oil film on the surface and a caramel scent at this stage. After this stage, the characteristic fragrances of coffee beans, such as the fruity aroma of Puerto Rican coffee, almost vanish.

  • 240 degrees Celsius (464 degrees Fahrenheit) Roasted French Beef

When the coffee beans cease bursting, the second step begins. Coffee has a rich dark brown hue, glossy beans, low acidity, and chemical reactions have come to a halt.

  • 473 °F + 245 °C Roasted Italian Pork

The sour flavor is completely gone, and the coffee beans are black, glossy, and have a burnt smell.

Most of the original taste of the coffee beans will be kept in brown roasts, which is the flavor formed by the quality of the soil, altitude, climate – weather of the growing area, and crops mixed with coffee.
When darker beans are roasted, the natural flavors are overshadowed by the flavor of the beans themselves. It’s difficult to tell the provenance of coffee beans only by tasting them at this point. For example, Bourbon coffee grown in Vietnam and Bourbon coffee cultivated in Central America would now smell identical but will lack the local flavor of brown roasting.



Coffees created by combining several types of coffee beans, roasting processes, and spices are referred to as “mixed coffee.” Vanilla, rhum, and chestnut are examples of non-coffee flavors. It contributes to a cup of coffee’s overall flavor becoming richer, more varied, and with ups and downs, rather than a single flavor from start to finish.

The big coffee chains frequently develop their own unique flavor, which remains consistent no matter where they open a location. It’s the brand, it’s the company identity. The majority of people choose to ‘mix coffee.’ They don’t rely on regional characteristics, such as the spicy and chocolatey qualities of Guatemalan coffee beans, partly because they can easily mimic them and partly because they don’t want to be completely reliant on a single kind. a cup of coffee The taste of coffee, like that of many other crops, is heavily influenced by climate. For example, if it rains a lot this year, but there is a drought next year, the taste and quality of coffee would be different, and big brands don’t want their products to be dependent on such weather.
Although many diverse combinations are possible, there are only two basic coffee varieties: arabica and robusta. Arabica is a highland coffee with a pure taste, a lengthy aftertaste, and a very aromatic and rich aroma. The arabica bean is often roasted to give it a smooth, caramelized aftertaste that brings out the rich flavor of the bean. Robusta beans, which are cultivated lower in the ground, have a powerful, rich, bitter flavor.
The most basic sort of mixed coffee is a blend of two arabica and robusta varieties that provide a diversity of flavors on the tip of the tongue. Going even further, combining multiple types and roasts, such as Robusta Roasted Cinnamon Roast – Robusta City Roast – Bourbon Arabica, and Colombian Arabica, all with the same goal in mind: to produce the particular coffee flavor you desire.

Roasting Process, Roaster, Roast  

FAQ: counter culture coffee, coffee roasting basics  


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