Coffee Cultivation: What is Terroir? | Phenotype & Genotype.“ Terroir ” we hear more and more often when talking about coffee.
But what does this mysterious word mean? What does it have to do with the taste of our drinks? And why should coffee lovers, bartenders, roasters, producers, and more care?
What is Terroir?
Terroir: Characteristics of the land and farming environment. Environmental factors such as altitude, latitude, climate, soil conditions, and farming practices affect the phenotype of crops.
Here, you need to pause for a moment to clarify two concepts related to any tree; Phenotype & Genotype:
The observable characteristics of an organism within a given terroir group result from the interaction between the organism’s genotype (genetic code) and the terroir group.
The structural component of DNA that produces a particular phenotype; is the genetic code for a specific trait of a plant.
To create a typical delicious coffee, the genotype of the plant and the surrounding Terroir must be considered. Factors belonging to external conditions such as climate, soil, and farming techniques combine to create an overall coffee farm.
So the complete Terrior Symposium will explore how environmental conditions determine the coffee’s character and the crop’s success.
Terroir is often applied to wine and comes from “Terre,” which means land. In the coffee industry, Terroir is a confluence of many different factors that can dramatically impact and shape the flavor of coffee before it is roasted and extracted. Each element (whether natural & or artificial) has its complex properties, none of which are independent of significance. – Baristahustle
Of all the Terroir factors that can affect the growth of coffee plants, there are a few (such as altitude and latitude) that cannot be changed.
For a clearer picture of how costly farming management can be and how certain aspects of Terroir can affect the crop’s phenotype, you can check out some of our interviews. Consult with scientists, agronomists, and traders who buy green coffee beans.